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A Nature Research Journal

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Extreme and persistent drought in California and Patagonia during mediaeval time

Letter | Published:

, pages 546 549 (16 June 1994) | Download Citation


STUDIES from sites around the world have provided evidence for anomalous climate conditions persisting for several hundred years before about AD 1300. Early workers emphasized the temperature increase that marked this period in the British Isles, coining the terms 'Mediaeval Warm Epoch' and 'Little Climatic Optimum', but many sites seem to have experienced equally important hydrological changes. Here I present a study of relict tree stumps rooted in present-day lakes, marshes and streams, which suggests that California's Sierra Nevada experienced extremely severe drought conditions for more than two centuries before ad 1112 and for more than 140 years before ad 1350. During these periods, runoff from the Sierra was significantly lower than during any of the persistent droughts that have occurred in the region over the past 140 years. I also present similar evidence from Patagonia of drought conditions coinciding with at least the first of these dry periods in California. I suggest that the droughts may have been caused by reorientation of the mid-latitude storm tracks, owing to a general contraction of the circumpolar vortices and/or a change in the position of the vortex waves. If this reorientation was caused by mediaeval warming, future natural or anthropogenically induced warming may cause a recurrence of the extreme drought conditions.

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Saturday, November 5, 2016 - 12:00pm to Sunday, November 6, 2016 - 5:00pm

Celebrate the season along the MRH Wine Trail. Enjoy holiday foods paired perfectly with a featured wine. Visit all four wineries and register for prizes.

FOOD+WINE: Wine Pairing and Tour
Saturday, November 5, 2016 - 2:00pm to 3:30pm
Jowler Creek Winery
FOOD+WINE: Wine Pairing and Tour
Saturday, November 5, 2016 - 2:00pm to 3:30pm
Jowler Creek Winery
Guess The Grape
Saturday, November 5, 2016 - 4:00pm to 9:00pm
Sulgrave Regency Ballroom

This event brings together supporters and SightSavers from across Kansas City for an evening of delicious food, live entertainment, and good company all in the name of protecting sight.

Guests will delight in the tasting room by trying different varieties of wine and will be given raffle tickets for correctly guessing the subtle characteristics, varietal, price level, etc. of each glass.

Inspired by “blind” events in the past, this event highlights the necessary sense of sight by temporarily removing this sense and heightening others. Hence, Guess The Grape.

Featuring an evening of great entertainment, food, wine and a silent auction, this event will support the eye care that we provide at no cost to the 300 low-income and homeless.

Since 2009, KC Free Eye Clinic has helped over 2,700 adults and children get the reliable, compassionate, and professional care they need to restore and protect their sight - the sense people most fear losing.

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Sippin’, Smokin’ Singin’ Saturday Night
Saturday, November 5, 2016 - 6:00pm to 9:00pm
Jowler Creek Winery

Gather your friends and come relax in our indoor barrel room (or outside if the weather is nice!) as we stay open late this Saturday night with live acoustic rock-and-roll music. We’ll be selling wine and beer by the glass and bottle, and we’ll also have picnic pails with warm, fresh bread and delectable cheeses and salamis available for purchase. Cost to attend is FREE. No reservations are required to join the fun...just come on out! No outside beverages (alcoholic or non-alcoholic) allowed.

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Districts are required to put state standards into place so all students have access to high-quality content and instruction. Districts mustdevelop local standards forsubjects that do not have state standards. Resources are provided to help districts in this effort.State standards are revised on a schedule approved by the Minnesota Legislature.You can follow thecurrent revisionprocesson this page (see revision schedule below).Please subscribe to this page to receive email notices whennew information is added.

Science Education Standards Review Committee Chosen!

The Minnesota Department of Education has chosen the members of the Science Education Standards Review Committee.This committee will meet during the 2018-19 school year to review the current (2009) standards, gather feedback, and propose new standards.For more information, visit the Science Education Standards webpage .

Arts Education Standards Review Process

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2018 Minnesota Academic Standards in Physical Education

The Minnesota Department of Education released the official 2018 Academic Standards in Physical Education document on February 1, 2018. The standards are to be fully implemented in all Minnesota school districts by the 2021-22 school year. Full implementation of the 2018 Minnesota Academic Standards in Physical Education is defined as:

To view the standards, the Recommended Physical Education Transition Timeline and more information, visit the Physical Education Standards webpage.

Minnesota Kindergarten Academic Standards

The Minnesota Kindergarten Academic Standards contain all of the state academic standards for kindergarten in the following content areas: Arts (2008), English Language Arts (2010), Mathematics (2007), Science (2009) and Social Studies (2011). A short overview is provided in each content area as well as information about how the standards are organized. The standards in this document are a reference to the official versions of the Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards.

Minnesota's K-12 Academic Standards Identify the Knowledge and Skills Required for All Students

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